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Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldanha (August 9, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was born in Textla, the current state of Guerrero, Mexico. Military and politicians. He was one of the key figures of the Mexican independence movement. Guerrero joined the cause of independence in 1810, when it fought alongside José Maria Morelos. After his death he joined Agustín de Iturbide, with whom he created the Iguala plan, which led to the independence of Mexico in 1821. His most striking actions were the conquest of Oaxaca, the uprising of Puebla and the battle of Barabas Hill. After the fall of Iturbide, he supported the government of Guadeloupe Victoria, which he replaced in 1829. During his short reign, he abolished slavery in Mexico.

Early years

As the son of Juan Guerrero and Maria Saldagna, he was born into a family of farmers and muleteers, a profession he learned at a very young age. At the same time he studied under private teachers. He started working for the mule at a very young age, a job that led him to move to the region of what is now the state of Guerrero. In the course of his work, the struggle for independence broke out under the leadership of priests Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos. The latter was charged with moving the rebellion to southern Mexico, the region where the young Guerrero lived. During the Morelos campaign, a large number of young people joined the fight for independence – Ermenegildo Galeana, who convinced Guerrero to join the Morelos campaign.

Military career

After his participation in the Guerrero campaign, he took an active part in the battles in southern Mexico and distinguished himself on the battlefield by his talent and skill, although he had no knowledge of the art of warfare and the use of weapons. For his outstanding achievements he was appointed Captain Morelos, who subsequently instructed him in gunpowder production, weapons handling and military strategies.

After the conquest and death of Hidalgo, the rebel command took control of the district of Ignacio López and José Maria Morelos, who continued to support Guerrero. With Morelos he took part in Tom de Oaxaca where his skills were superior and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.

By order of Morelos he was sent to support the troops in the southern coastal area. In the region where he participated in the conquests of Puerto Escondido and Santa Cruz de Oatulco, he then actively participated in the conquest of Acapulco. In the mid 1810s he was part of the army that escorted the councillors to Tlakotepek.

He then supported the forces of Juan N. Rosain and Ramon Sesma in Mikstek, where their strategies and surprise attacks were effective. In the same period Morelos was arrested and shot, which had a profound effect on a movement that had been destroyed and threatened to suffocate. But Guerrero kept fighting for the cause.

When Morelos died, Guerrero was responsible for the rebellion he led from the southern region where he fought. At the end of the 1810s, Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca tried to persuade the young soldier to give up his arms in exchange for money, but he refused.

In the early years of the 1820s, the Independence Army found itself in a difficult situation as soon as it was able to withstand the real forces. However, the situation changed when a liberal trinity was established in Spain (1820-1823). The possible establishment of a liberal regime in the colonies had frightened the colonial elite, who in the meantime had begun to cooperate against the Spanish government. In this atmosphere of intrigue Apodakus sent Agustin de Iturbide to negotiate a pardon with Guerrero, but Iturbide, knowing the situation in the country, decided to change sides and join the independence struggle with Guerrero. Together they developed the Iguala Plan, a programme that led to the declaration of independence and a plan to establish a Mexican government.

Mexican independence

After the elaboration of the Iguala Plan (1821) Guerrero and Iturbide, together with the army of Trigarantia, went to Mexico City, where they arrived in September 1821 with the support of many supporters. Upon his arrival Iturbide declared independence and led a transitional government, which then gave way to the establishment of a monarchic regime, as proposed in the Iguala plan. After the establishment of the government, a letter was sent to Fernando VII informing him of independence and inviting a member of the royal family to ascend the throne of Mexico. This proposal was rejected by the sovereign.

Iturbide was then appointed Emperor of Mexico, a position he held from 1822 to 1823. This period was known as the First Mexican Empire. At that time Guerrero had already spoken out against the new government against which it had fought during the uprising of General Antonio López de Santa Anna.

In subsequent years he supported the Republican Government of Guadeloupe Victoria, which was facing serious problems due to power struggles and internal tensions between supporters of the Republican Government. Following the election of Manuel Gómez Pedrasa, Guerrero led the Accordado uprising and the Santa Anna uprising, which resulted in a petition for the annulment of the election under pressure from Congress, which dismissed Gómez Pedrasa and declared Guerrero President.

Vicente Guerrero Presidency

He ruled from April to December 1829. In these months he tried to implement several liberal reforms. The first was the abolition of slavery on the 15th day. September 1829. He then proposed economic and social reforms. However, due to the economic crisis in the country, this has had no significant impact.

During his reign he was confronted with attempts to conquer the Spanish monarchy. He was also confronted with a coup organised by Santa Anna and Anastasio Bustamante. After some time Guerrero was removed from office and Bustamante was appointed president. In an attempt to regain power, he was captured in Acapulco, tried in Oaxaca and sentenced to death on the 14th day of the war. February 1831 shot in Cuilapan. Download…

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